Brain pathologies

Neuron Guard helps taking care of the brain
during these situations


A stroke, or cerebrovascular incident, is a rapid loss of brain functions due to the
alteration of its blood supply.

The abrupt reduction of oxygen and glucose leads to progressive death of neurons, the cells that make the brain. They do not have the ability to regenerate dead tissue, so every loss is permanent.

A stroke can be the consequence of ischemia (lack of blood flow) caused by blockade of a blood vessel (caused by thrombosis of embolism) or haemorrhage.

The area affect etermines the clinical outcome in term of lost functions such as movement of part of the body,speech or sight. Common signs of stroke are sudden face weakness, arm drift and abnormal speech.

The risk factors are high blood pressure, age, previous cerebrovascular incident, high cholesterol, smoke, atrial fibrillation.

While haemorrhagic stroke may benefit from neurosurgery, ischemic stroke can be treated with thrombolysis in specialized hospital units.The thrombus or embolus is dissolved by the injection of a specific drug.

Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury occurs when an external,
traumatizing force is applied to the brain.

It can be classified on the basis of the characteristics and areas involved.

The primary lesion is the direct consequence of the transfer of energy to the brain while the secondary injuries are the consequences of the primary lesions and take place between minutes to days after the initiating event. They can contribute substantially to the initial damage.

It is one the major causes of death and permanent disability for children and young adults as result of falls, vehicle accidents and violence.

Early effective therapy is essential in improving the outcome of patients: specialized hospitals – trauma centres – offer a multidisciplinary integrated approach to maximize the benefits of current therapies.

Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac arrest refers to the cessation of the pump function of the heart.

Blood flow to organs and tissues is stopped: brain, that is dependent on a constant
supply of oxygen and glucose, starts developing irreversible injuries after 5 minutes on average. Immediate effective treatment is fundament to improve survival and neurological outcome.

Early hypothermia has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing brain lesions. Signs of cardiac arrest are sudden loss of consciousness, respiratory arrest, complete cessation of movements and absence of a palpable pulse.

Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of cardiac arrest, reducing risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity is the key to reducing its incidence.